APR White Papers

This paper explores various volumetric efficiency derivations including cylinder charge temperature and residual mass models for improved fidelity.

The quintessential model at the heart of all powertrain controllers is the multi-variable nonlinear volumetric efficiency calculation that describes the engine pumping performance.  Volumetric efficiency is used to determine the cylinder states for engine load that is utilized throughout the entire control strategy.  Having an accurate volumetric efficiency model under all operating conditions is essential for high performance emission and drivability quality.

This paper explores using an interpolated neural network (INN) in place of the classical scalar-cell two and four-point interpolation routines used for embedded nonlinear control.  The INN is designed to be a practical multi-dimensional nonlinear system identification routine that is real-time implementable.